Ah-meh-strah-an Resymbolization

Abraham 1:20-28,

1835 original, pages. 4-6

Line 2 _ Samples 13 - 16

Above, Michael D. Rhodes' proposed restoration of missing text from the Hor Book of Breathings, Fragment A, line 2 (transcribed by Rhodes into hieroglyphic Egyptian, picture symbols). The text reads right to left, "the Osiris Hor [Horus], justified." (The Hor Book of Breathings - A Translation and Commentary, pg. 35) This missing text corresponds to Book of Abraham character samples (13) through (16) appearing in the margins of early Book of Abraham manuscripts.


Hieratic Sample Characters (13) - (16)

Next is a proposed transcription into hieratic characters corresponding to the same missing text from the Hor Book of Breathings, Fragment A , line 2 (V. Coon). Most of these symbols can be found in Moeller's lists which correlate hieroglyphic and hieratic signs: The hieratic reads right to left like Hebrew. The hieratic throne symbol (Möller, Q 383), sun disc (Möller, N 303), falcon on a standard (Möller, G 188) are shown above. Other pertinent hieratic signs follow: tusk (Gardiner's F18) similar to (Möller, F 160), mouth (Möller, D 91), Shu feather (Möller, H 287), and oar (Möller, P 381).


Sensen B Hieratic Sample from line 12 Sensen A Hieratic Sample from line 3

Similar hieratic lines from Hor Book of Breathings (Sensen papyrus). Right: Fragment A, line 3. Left: Fragment B, line 12.


FW (16A) FW (15A) FW (14A) FW (13A)

Right to left (starting from the hieratic throne symbol on the far right): character samples (13) through (16) from Book of Abraham Manuscript A in the handwriting of Joseph Smith's scribe Frederick G. Williams + unidentified scribe.


WP (16B) WP (15B) WP (14B) WP (13B)

WP (16C) WP (15C) WP (14C) WP (13C)

Right to left (starting from the hieratic throne symbol on the far right): character samples (13) through (16) from Book of Abraham Manuscript B and C including the handwriting of Joseph Smith's scribe Warren Parrish.

Comparing the above Book of Abraham characters with the characters of the proposed missing Egyptian text, it is evident that more is involved in character samples (13) through (16) than amateur attempts to copy portions of hieratic. These strange, somewhat repeated symbols represent an effort to introduce, or reveal new characters, and to assign to them meanings beyond any academic reading of the Hor Book of Breathings, Sensen papyrus text.

Joseph Smith's polyglot "Egyptians" (the Ah-meh-strah-ans, possibly meaning Am-Mitsraymah) converted to the worship of the Hebrew God YAH. (Isaiah 19:21) They thought they could see meanings (and in some cases deliberately assigned esoteric meanings) beyond the standard meanings of symbols in Egyptian texts and art.

Here, in review, with Hebrew descriptions added, are the proposed hieroglyphic and hieratic Egyptian symbols corresponding to the missing Sensen papyrus text:

throne, Ws Gardiner's Q1, throne;Q383Möller, Q 383; Hebrew: "kise" (כסא ,כיסא), "as Isis" wordplay.

sun sign Gardiner's N5, sun; N303Möller, N 303; Hebrew (poetic): "hamah" (חמה).

god of Pharaoh Gardiner's G7, falcon on a standard;G188Möller, G 188; Hebrew: "ayah al-nes" (איה על־נס)

Gardiner's F18, tusk of elephant; F18 similar to Möller, F 160; Hebrew: "shen-habim" (שנהבים).

mouth, r Gardiner's D21, mouth; Möller, D 91; Hebrew: "peh" (פה).

shu feather, Maat Gardiner's H6, Shu feather; H287Möller, H 287; Hebrew: "evrah" (אברה)

oar Gardiner's P8, oar; P381Möller, P 381; "mashot" (משוט).

The Ah-meh-strah-ans apparently saw in the throne and sun symbols descent from Ham a coming "down in lineage by royal descent". The sun, "hamah" is related to the name "Ham". In the Book of Abraham manuscripts, these symbols are associated with Abraham 1:20-22: "... the court of Pharaoh; which Pharaoh signifies king by royal blood. Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham ..."

In Book of Breathings Fragment A, line 3 (seen above) the hieratic sun symbol appears under the throne. Perhaps this is how it was in the lost hieratic portion. Its possible that the copied hieratic throne symbol seen in character sample (13) WP (13C) includes an indistinct sunN303or eye hieratic eyesymbol under the throne. The falcon standardG188seems to appear to the left of the throne and sun (or eye) descent from Ham, similar to how it appears in Fragment A, line 3 Sensen A Hieratic Sample from line 3. Though the arrangement is a little different, the three symbols G188descent from Ham nevertheless read, "Osiris Hor".

There is evidence of symbol repetition in character samples (13) through (16). The vertical lines may correspond to various vertical strokes in the hieratic characters of the lost portion. The dot-like center of the sun symbol, may in fact be represented in all four Book of Abraham character samples (13) through (16). This assumes that the indistinct marks under the copied throne can be interpreted to be a sun symbol. There appears to be in the character samples, a repetition, dissection, rearrangement and augmentation of symbols that in some sense correspond to, or connect with the lost hieratic symbols of the Sensen papyrus.

The Book of Abraham character samples in this case, are not just amateur attempts to copy hieratic characters from the Book of Breathings. They reveal the sort of thing that the Ah-meh-strah-ans did with hieratic symbols. They dissected, revised and reinterpreted them, correlating them with portions of the Sepher Avram (Book of Abram) text in their possession. So not only do the hieratic symbols of the Sensen papyrus and their transcribed hieroglyphic counterparts (picture symbols) correlate with the Book of Abraham narrative (in esoteric Ah-meh-strah-ans fashion), but the Ah-meh-strah-an scribe(s) who may have composed the Book of Isis (Sarah), called the Book of Breathings, with the intent of encoding in it the Words of Osiris (Abraham), may have also inherited or devised an auxiliary system of symbols and terms in connection with certain funerary texts, such as the mummy scrolls of Hor.

An auxiliary system of symbols, that is, that mesh both the Book of Abraham and the Book of Breathings like a kind of transtextual clutch plate. This is what the Prophet Joseph Smith seems to have revealed (with various brethren acting as scribes) in the Kirtland Egyptian Papers (KEP). These clutch plate like symbols and notes made under the Prophet Joseph Smith's direction, could represent the kind of thing that the Ah-meh-strah-an scribe(s) did and kept for the purpose of further encoding Egyptian funerary texts like the Book of Isis (Sarah). In other words, the Prophet Joseph Smith revealed similar symbols and notes to help restore the lost Words of Osiris (Abraham) from the Book of Isis (Sarah). This was in keeping with the myth that Isis was the means of restoring the body and continuing the seed of her brother and husband Osiris. A myth that the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-ans were fond of and adapted to Abraham. Thus the Osiris/Abraham equivalence in the resurrection art of the restored Book of Abraham. And thus the hieratic to Hebrew narrative "clutch plate" characters mediating the two written works.

So the purpose of the "clutch plate" characters and explanatory notes is to further enhance the correlation, or meaningful engagement between the hieratic and revealed Abrahamic texts.

"Phah eh"Phah eh and "Phaah"Phaoh, for example, are Ah-meh-strah-an "clutch plate" symbols that seem to be devised (modified, component like) from the hieratic throne characterQ383. Their esoteric interpretations relate to the significance of the pharaonic throne, but also connect with the subject matter of the Abram narrative. Consider 5th Degree, pg. 3, 4th Degree, pg. 9, 3rd Degree, pg. 13, 2nd Degree, pg. 17, 1st Degree, pg. 21.

Notice that the Book of Isis (Sarah) hieratic text (encoded with esoteric Abramic meaning) selected by Joseph Smith to fill in the hieroglyphic lacunae of the Sheshanq Hypocephalus, avoids the missing hieratic portions of the Hor Book of Breathings Made By Isis. The hieratic portions that help convert, "Abramize" and circumcise the pagan hypocephalus are characters samples (12), (19)-(20), (24)-(27). Whereas character samples (1)-(6), (13)-(16), and part of (23) are missing hieratic characters. See Esoteric Egyptian in Facsimile No. 2.

Let us consider that the Prophet took Ah-meh-strah-an styled liberties with the missing portions of hieratic text, revealing in their stead augmented "clutch plate" like symbols that further engage the Book of Abraham? We should not be surprised then that character samples (13) through (16) feature altered, augmented, and repeated symbols that relate the two works.

When prophets restore things that are lost, they can bring forth more than what was there in the first place. Prophets can augment and add "many like" things! (Jeremiah 36:32)

The lost hieratic text restored above, features the sun signN303, in the expression "the Osiris Hor [Horus] ...", referring to the father and son Egyptian gods in the exalted title of the resurrected priest named Hor (his name in mortality). The sun sign is similar to the eye sign hieratic eyewhich customarily appears in the spelling of the name Osiris. Hence the sun (symbolically one of the eyes of the sky god Horus) also implicates the eye symbol in the name Osiris (throne and eye) copied hieratic throne and eye. These same hieratic characters were copied from the Amenhotep Book of the Dead papyrus at the direction of the Prophet Joseph Smith. See for instance Joseph Smith Egyptian Papers, Notebook of Copied Characters, Circa Early July 1835, pg. 2. You may wish to review again the hieratic throne symbolQ383(Möller, Q 383) above, and see the hieratic eye hieratic eye(Möller, D 82). You may wish to compare these symbols with the hieroglyphic throne (Gardiner, Q1) and eye (Gardiner, D4).

FW (13A) = G188 descent from Ham

Proposed hieratic interpretation of character sample (13).

The Ah-meh-strah-ans took the sun signN303and apparently parted it into upper Sue and lower Toan arcs to which they assigned separate meanings, leaving a pupil like spot that brings to mind the scriptural "apple of his eye". See "Iota", 1st Degree, pg. 21, and the Hebrew word "ishon" (אִישׁוֹן). See also Ryan Larsen, "Joseph Smith's Egyptian Alphabet, Revisited!"

The lower arc Toan signifying for instance "under the Sun: under heaven; downward; ... going down into misery= even Hell; coming down in lineage by royal descent [i.e. "from the loins of Ham"], ... one of the royal families of the Kings the of Egypt. ... exceeding bad adultery ... disgusting- not fit" (5th Degree, pg. 5, 4th Degree, pg. 10, 1st Degree, pg. 21).

Hence the immediate correlation between hieratic character sample (13) (including the throneQ383, the sunN303, and the pharaonic symbolG188) and Abraham 1:20-22 in the early Book of Abraham manuscripts. But in addition to the hieratic/hieroglyphic correlation, we should consider the subsidiary "clutch plate" correlation between Abraham 1:20-22 and the "under the Sun" symbol Toan explained in the Ah-meh-strah-an Degrees (e.g. pp. 5, 10, 14, 18, 21). See how all of these correlate and mesh in

20 ... the court of Pharaoh; which Pharaoh signifies king by royal blood. 21 Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. 22 From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land.; (Abraham 1:20-22)

The Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-ans ostensibly tied the "under the Sun" symbol "Toan" Toan to the Greek letter "tau" (Τ, τ) as in Tartarus, which is also related to a shortened verb meaning to thrust down to the lowest part of the underworld, (ταρταρώσας, 2 Peter 2:4).

FW (14A)F18N303G188Iota toues Zip Zi

Proposed hieratic characters that sample (14) possibly draws from. The Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an symbol "Iota toues Zip Zi" Iota toues Zip Zi may be seen in sample (14).

The above includes a symbolic reference to Pharaoh who in life embodies Horusgod of Pharaoh. The Egyptian king's relation to the sun "hamah" (חמה)sun signis also seen in the symbols above. The symbols may also be viewed as N303H287 which when read right to left in Hebrew, signifies "evrah" (אברה) + "hamah" (חמה) - which sounds like "Avra+ham", and looks somewhat like the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an composite symbol or monogram for the land of Egypt Iota toues Zip Zi.

The Ah-meh-strah-ans would have recognized in the “Shu feathershu feather, Maat the symbol of Maat, the female personification of truth, justice and balance. Maat was considered essential to the existence of the world, and Egyptian society. The homonym “mat” (מַת) in Hebrew means “a mature man”. (Job 31:31) Maat is interpreted to signify a male member of the Egyptian ruling class in Book of Abraham Facsimile No. 3, Fig. 4. The symbolsN303H287, or sun signshu feather, Maatmay then be seen to signify a man (male offspring) of Ham (via חמה).

Thus the sample (14) characters seem to correlate with the 1835 manuscript portion to which they are assigned. (Abraham 1:23-24)

Additionally there is correlation with the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an "under the Sun" symbol "Toan" Toan which participates in Iota toues Zip Zi "The land of Egypt which was first discovered by a woman <​wh[i]le underwater​>", and which also involves the Greek named "Iota" symbol in "a land seen when overflown by water". (5th Degree, pg. 5)

The horizontal line "Zip Zi" Zip Zi in the composite symbol Iota toues Zip Zicould also be seen as a standard Egyptian symbol for "land", Gardiner's N17, and Möller, N 317. Note the Ah-meh-strah-an connection between "women" and "the earth yielding its fruit" in "Zip Zi", 4th Degree, pg. 10.

"Zip Zi" (צִף צִי) could relate to a masculine form of a feminine Hebrew noun meaning "outlook-post", the verb "to look out or about, spy, keep watch", and an Egyptian loanword for "ship" (tsi). Comparison can be made with Ah-meh-strah-an "Zi" Zi, which brings to mind feminine virtue, beauty, uprightness [i.e. that of a masted vessel]. E.g. 5th Degree, pg. 4; Abraham 1:11. Thus, "Zip Zi" (צִף צִי) a habitable landZip Zi (feminine), whether small or great, seen from the outlook of a ship (Gardiner's P1, Möller, P 374Tsi): Iota toues Toan Zip Zi Zip Zi

Iota toues Zip Zi

"The land of Egypt"

Papyrus Solar Ferry  Sun boat

Toan "under the Sun ..." "under water ..."

"Avarat-hamah" (עברת-חמה), papyrus solar ferry with lotus bow and stern; emblematic of the Hebrew (עִבְרִי) Abraham in Egypt among other things. From the Lady Tshemmin (Ta-Sherit-Min, Tshenmin, Semminis) Book of the Dead (JSP IV). Converted to Figure 3 of the "Abramized" and circumcised Shishaq (Sheshanq) Book of the Dead Hypocephalus (Facsimile No. 2).

Also a landZip Zi(feminine) seen under Toan water, meaning much of the land was inundated at the time of its discovery - "low marshy ground". ("Iota tou-es Zip zi [tsi]", 2nd Degree, pg. 18) The Egyptian ship symbol Tsi(no sail), like toues Toan, denotes "go downstream". (5th Degree, pg. 5)

The hieratic tusk F18 (modeled from the hieratic tusk symbol in Book of Breathings, Louvre 3284, line 20) may also be seen to participate in character sample (14) - possibly as a power symbol related to "shin" = "teeth, tooth, tusk". It may also be seen to form the canthus of the restored and restoring Eye of Horus.

Again, sample (14) symbols seem to correlate with the following scriptural text:

23 The land of Egypt being first discovered by a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus ["Zeptah"], which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; 24 When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse in the land. (Abraham 1:23-24)

FW (15A) P381H287F18N303G188

Proposed hieratic characters that sample (15) may draw from. Sample (15) includes the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an symbols "Iota" and "Zub Zool eh" Zub Zool eh. The "eh" indicates Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an "first" or number one eh = 1 (possibly seen in the character sample). See numeric characters, and compare with Hebrew "ehad" (אֶחָד), and alephSinai Aleph.

Again, the Ah-meh-strah-ans would have recognized in the “Shu featherH287,shu feather, Maat the symbol of Maat, the personification of truth, justice and balance. "Ma'at", you recall, brings order to the kingdom and helps establish Egyptian society in general. The homonym “mat” (מַת) in Hebrew, you recall, means “a mature man”. (Job 31:31) Maat may here again be interpreted to signify a male member of the Egyptian ruling class as in Book of Abraham Facsimile No. 3, Fig. 4.

N303G188, or sun signgod of Pharaohmay be seen to signify Pharaoh as the male offspring of "hamah" (feminine) or Ham (masculine).

The “oar” symbol oar in Egyptian connotes one who is “justified”. Thus the correlation with, "Pharaohgod of Pharaoh being a righteous man shu feather, Maatestablishedhis Kingdom, and judged his people wisely and justlyoar". (Abraham 1:26)

Here the elephant tusk F18, or , "shen-habim" (שנהבים) is a power symbol related to the "W" shaped Hebrew letter "shin" = "teeth, tooth, tusk", as in the word "shadai" (שדי).

The sample (15) characters (both the proposed hieratic, and Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an "clutch plate" composite characters, e.g. "Zub Zool eh" with all its components: pp. 6, 11, 14, 18, 21) seem to correlate with the 1835 manuscript portion to which they are assigned. See Abraham 1:25-26:

25 Now the first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus ["Egyptes", Mitsraymah, Hamah], the daughter of Ham, and it was after the manner of the government of Ham, which was patriarchal. 26 Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and judged his people wisely and justly all his days, seeking earnestly to imitate that order established by the fathers in the first generations, in the days of the first patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also of Noah, his father, who blessed him with the blessings of the earth, and with the blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood. (Abraham 1:25-26)

FW (16A)N303H287G188N303or possibly N303G188G188N303. DoubleG188appear in the restored Egyptian text (above). Hence more than one Hor or Horus → "Pharaohs" (Abraham 1:27). These are proposed hieratic characters that sample (16) may draw from. Sample (16) also includes the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an "clutch plate" symbols "Toan tau ee" Toan, "Iota" , and "Zub Zool" Zub Zool. "Zub Zool" could be an arcane Semitic reference to the flow of time from a relative beginning (זוּב צוּלָה).

"Zub" (זוּב) Zub possibly indicates an upward flowing, or being carried up (possibly related to Gardiner's P2), a "time for going up", "being caught up" sunward, "pointing to that which is to come, pointing to any fixed period", as "pointing to that which has been created". By analogy: the upper Nile flowing from headwaters; "Zool" (צוּל) Zool indicating, "From any fixed period of time back to the beginning [i.e. deep time]". (Ecclesiates 1:9-10) See Ah-meh-strah-an Degrees pp. 6, 7, 11, 14, 18, 22, Aleph-Beth ...

G188N303or god of Pharaohsun sign may be seen as representing mortal Pharaoh as the sky god Horus - a male descendent H287,shu feather, Maat(מַת) of "hamah" (feminine)N303,sun sign or Ham (masculine).

The sample (16) characters (proposed hieratic and Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an "clutch plate" symbols "Toan tau ee" Toan, and "Zub Zool"Zub Zool: pp. 6, 11, 14, 18, 22) seem to correlate with the 1835 manuscript portion to which they are assigned. Ah-meh-strah-an "Iota" in this case may seem to correlate only with the hieratic sunN303, and thus hebraically with Ham and hamah. Reference to "seeing" does not appear in the text selection. The Ah-meh-strah-an "Iota" does, however, correlate with the twofold appearance of the first person personal pronoun "I" near the beginning and end of verse 28. See "Iota" in Ah-meh-strah-an Aleph-Beth, and see Abraham 1:27-28:

27 Now, Pharaoh being of that lineage by which he could not have the right of Priesthood, notwithstanding the Pharaohs would fain claim it from Noah, through Ham, therefore my father was led away by their idolatry; 28 But I shall endeavor, hereafter, to delineate the chronology running back from myself to the beginning of the creation, for the records have come into my hands, which I hold unto this present time. (Abraham 1:27-28)

Ah-meh-strah-an "Zub Zool"Zub Zoolcan apparently be seen in a variety of combined hieratic characters including:

P381H287 from character sample (15).

H287G188from character sample (16).

G188G188is another possibility seen in character sample (16); corresponding to "Pharaohs" (plural, more than one Hor or Horusgod of Pharaohgod of Pharaoh) referenced in Abraham 1:27.

(Book of Breathings, Louvre 3284) interpreted as Book of Abraham margin sample 3 (Book of Abraham manuscript, 1835) character sample (3) from a lost hieratic portion in the Hor Book of Breathings. See "Kiah broam = Kiah brah oam = zub zool oan", 5th Degree, pg. 3.

Joseph Smith also associated "Ki-ah-bram, Ki-ah-bra-oam - Zub-sool-oan" with the hieratic characters Great King of Upper Egypt appearing with the first vignette of the Hor Book of Breathings Made By Isis, the vignette redacted as Book of Abraham Facsimile No. 1. Similar looking representations of the hieratic characters were made at Kirtland:

Ki-ah-bram, Ki-ah-bra-oam-Zub-sool-oan. This Kirtland version is equivalent to the following hieroglyphic characters:

Gardiner A19 "Great" Ancient of DaysGardiner A43 King of Upper Egypt

These standard Egyptian hieroglyphs may be interpreted to signify "great (elder) king of upper Egypt", or "Osiris the Great". An Ah-meh-strah-an may see in the symbols, "Exalted Father (Avram) back to an Ancient of Days" (Daniel 7:9) - “first born, or the first man, or father of fathers. (Abraham 1:2-3, 8-10, LDS Doctrine & Covenants 107:54-56)

The references to Hebrew and Greek symbols and terms in the Kirtland Egyptian Papers are consistent with the Ptolemaic times of the mummy scrolls. The Hebrew and Greek symbols and terms are not consistent with the idea that the Prophet Joseph and his brethren handled and viewed an original papyrus document featuring the "raah-li-nes" (ראה- לי- נס) handwriting of Abraham (Avram) in Egypt. (Abraham 1:14)

The Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-ans were the custodians of a version of the ancient Sepher Avram (Book of Abram), which they supplemented with Egyptian art, and text. They likely tried to provide a meaningful Egyptian replacements for at least one lost illustration that had featured "hieroglyphics" (Abraham 1:12, 14).

1842 Intro to Book of Abraham

Joseph Smith's original introduction to the Book of Abraham published in the March 1, 1842 edition of the Times and Seasons newspaper.

Everything Joseph Smith learned about Ah-meh-strah-an symbols and methods of interpretation, he learned by revelation. The Prophet did not have an earthly, academic means of interpreting Egyptian characters. To the Prophet, the scripture "purporting to be the writings of Abraham ... called THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM" was a work of "present revelation" (Joseph Smith, Times and Seasons, 1842, March 1, pg. 704, and September 1, pg. 902).

The Prophet had performed an earlier, revelatory translation of another ancient document, a document which he also did not hold in his hands. (LDS Doctrine and Covenants section 7) Similarly, Joseph received the text of the Sepher Avram, in English, by revelation. He supplemented the revealed Book of Abram with redactions and reinterpretations of Egyptian art and symbols; the kinds of things the Ah-meh-strah-ans had done to their version(s) of the Sepher Avram.

In other words, guided by higher intelligence, Joseph went to work correlating, in Ah-meh-strah-an fashion, the revealed scripture, with Egyptian funerary art and texts that came into his hands at Kirtland Ohio. The Book of Abraham correlates with the Hor Book of Breathings, and the Shishaq (Sheshanq) Book of the Dead, and other resurrection works; but none of these funerary works contain the Abram scripture's word-for-word written source.

Joseph Smith tells us that the Egyptian portions of the Book of Abraham were "A TRANSLATION Of some ancient Records [plural] that have fallen into our hands, from the Catecombs [Catacombs] of Egypt ..." This does not mean that the main text of the Book of Abram (his name while in Egypt), which was "written by his own hand, upon papyrus", existed in any obvious, written form on the papyrus scrolls that Joseph Smith received.

It was Oliver Cowdery, Joseph Smith's less informed assistant, who made the claim that writings of Abraham and Joseph of Egypt were recorded on the papyrus rolls. (Messenger and Advocate, "Egyptian Mummies - Ancient Records", December 1835, pp. 233-237)

We now know that the ancient papyrus records that Brother Cowdery described, contain the kind of funerary texts that one expects to find accompanying Egyptian mummies from Ptolemaic times. No writings on papyrus from Hebrew patriarchs came with the mummies to Kirtland.

Finding Additional Meaning in the Lost Hieratic Portions - Ah-meh-strah-an Style

Imagine the Hebrew names associated with the restored Egyptian characters (above) converted into a Hebrew string. The name "Avraham" appears in the string. With a little inspiration, the string of Hebrew words and letters can be rearranged into meaningful expressions which relate to the Book of Abraham. In the conversion below, highlighted letters ("mem", light blue) are converted to their final form (postexilic Hebrew/Aramaic) in the final string. This conversion is not necessary when writing the same strings in very ancient Hebrew - which uses "raah-li-nes" (ראה- לי- נס) "hieroglyphics" that can be described as phonetic reformed Egyptian (seen below):

Abraham Shuti Crowned

The Hebrew string can be interpreted to read:

"Abraham shuti crowned upon the ivory throne of Pharaoh(s) (Horus, sign of the falcon - doubled), the mouth of Ham (patriarchal sun)." Compare the above with Book of Abraham Facsimile No. 3, Figure 1. The sacred name of the Eternal Elohim can also be spelled with letters present in this Hebrew/Egyptian string.

A second Horus god of Pharaoh may be added to the above (as in Rhodes' restored Egyptian text), thus suggesting a line of "Pharaohs" descendents of Ham. An Ah-meh-strah-an component of the throne symbol, Su-Eh-ni Su e eh nimay be interpreted to raise the question of another [king] besides the first. E.g. 5th Degree pg. 5. The terms "eh" and "ni" refer to first and second (one and two).

The following analysis considers Ptolemaic time period Koine Greek drawing from, for example, the Septuagint (LXX) and the New Testament (NT):

oar(8) shu feather, Maat(7) god of Pharaoh(6) mouth, r(5) (4) god of Pharaoh(3) sun sign(2) throne, Ws(1)

P381(8) H287(7) G188(6) (5) F18(4) G188(3) N303(2) Q383(1)

oar(8)  feather(7) (falcon on a stand - Horus, 6)  mouth(5)  tusk(4)  (falcon on a stand - Horus, 3)  sun(2)  throne(1)

κωπας(8)* πτέρυξ(7) Ὧρος(6) (στόμα, ατος, τό, 5) (οδοντων ελεφαντινον,4) Ὧρος(3) (ἥλιος, ου, ὁ, 2) (θρόνος, ου, ὁ, 1)

* In Greek an oar is an implement that "cuts" the water. Compare Ezekiel 27:6 (Hebrew/English) with Jezekiel XXVII.6 (LXX), G2871, Noun.

Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an "Iota" Explained

One may imagine seeing Greek letters in the Book of Abraham character samples. Is it a coincidence that the capital Greek letter Eta (Η), as in the word for sun "Helios" (ΗΛΙΟΣ), resembles the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an "Zub Zool eh" Zub Zool eh?

In character sample (15), Zub Zool eh is followed by what can be seen as a Lambda (Λ) and an Iota (Ι) WP (15C). Look closely, and you may become convinced that Omicron (portrayed as the Egyptiansun sign), and Sigma (Σ, turned 90° ccw → Sigma rotated 90 degrees ccw) are also present in character sample (15) in a kind of monogram that spells ΗΛΙsun signΣ.

The Greek letter Iota is literally in the midst of the Greek word for sun (ΗΛΙsun signΣ), as is the Ah-meh-strah-an "Iota" in the middle of the hieraticN303. This helps explain why the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-ans chose the Greek letter "iota" (ι) to designate the "ishon" (אִישׁוֹן) at the center of the Egyptian sun symbol N303.

What is more, the Greek Eta (Η) is the equivalent of the Semitic letter Het (ח), as in Ham, and the poetic feminine Hebrew word for sun (חמה). Rotated 180°, and read right to left as a Semitic word (spelled with Greek letters), the Ah-meh-strah-an character sample (15) monogram reads "ΜΗ←" or "Η[Α]Μ" (switched left to right). "HAM" is spelled with Eta (Η) and Mu (Μ) in this case. It should be noted that the name "Cham" (son of Noe) is spelled χαμ (ΧΑΜ) in the Septuagint. See Genesis V.32 (LXX). The Hebrew letter Het (ח) makes a sound somewhere between the Greek letters Eta (Η) and Chi (Χ).

The Egyptian word or name associated with the sun symbolsun signis "Ra". See Gardiner's N5. "Ra" sounds like a Hebrew word meaning bad or evil. But the name of the Egyptian sun god also sounds like a Hebrew root meaning see, "raah" (ראה).

Of course, there is obvious association between the presence of the sun and the act of daytime seeing outside. The Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-ans seem to have synthesized the center of the Egyptian sun symbol "Ra"N303, with the pupil of an Eye of Horus; the small central letter (iota) in the Greek spelling of the word for sun, "ἥλιος", and the fact that Egyptian "Ra" sounds like the Hebrew word for see, "raah" (ראה).

NT Greek use of the word "iota" (ι) implies the Hebrew letter "yod" or "yud" (י, appearing, for example, in a Hebrew version of Matthew 5:18, see B'sorot Matti 5:18). Biblically, yod placed at the beginning of the Hebrew "re" (רא) yields a third person masculine spelling of the word for "saw", i.e. "and Elohim saw ..." (Genesis 1:4). The letter yod at the end of a word can denote the first person singular (I, me, my). See for example Psalm 23:1. Thus a possible explanation for the Ptolemaic Ah-meh-strah-an meanings associated with "Iota" (by implication, Yod). See Ah-meh-strah-an Degrees pp. 2, 5, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 23, Aleph-Beth ...

Relativity of Simplicity

“… he doeth nothing save it be plain unto the children of men …” (2 Nephi 26:33)

What exactly does this mean? Does it mean that everything that he (the Lord) does is plainly understood by all humans? This is clearly not the case; for “great and marvelous are the works of the Lord. How unsearchable are the depths of the mysteries of him; and it is impossible that man should find out all his ways.  And no man knoweth of his ways save it be revealed unto him; wherefore, brethren, despise not the revelations of God.” (Jacob 4:8) Moreover, “… my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the LORD. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.” (Isaiah 55:8-9)

Then does 2 Nephi 26:33 mean that “… he doeth nothing save it be plain unto the children of men, unto whom he revealeth a thing; …” (possible implied words in italics)? This is actually closer to the intent of Amos 3:7 which states, “Surely the Lord GOD [the Lord JEHOVAH] will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets.”

Even the resurrected Messiah did not succeed the first time in communicating to all the gathered Nephites, some things which he was commanded of the Father to speak to them. (3 Nephi 17:1-3)

According to scripture, whether or not a thing is considered “plain” or simple, or easy to understand, is relative. That is, plainness, or simplicity depends on one’s understanding and points of view:

“Wherefore, hearken, O my people, which are of the house of Israel, and give ear unto my words; for because the words of Isaiah are not plain unto you, nevertheless they are plain unto all those that are filled with the spirit of prophecy…” (2 Nephi 25:4)

“… For the Lord God giveth light unto the understanding; for he speaketh unto men according to their language, unto their understanding.” (2 Nephi 31:3)

On the relativity of what is esteemed “great” or “small”; regarding what was likely a subatomic source of radiance prepared for the Jaredites, we learn that the Lord is “able to show forth great power, which looks small unto the understanding of men.” (Ether 3:4-5)

Albert Einstein is credited with saying:

Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler. When the solution is simple, God is answering. Three Rules of Work: Out of clutter find simplicity. From discord find harmony. In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.” (The Ultimate Quotable Einstein, Edited by Alice Calaprice, Princeton University Press, pg. 480)

This brings us to the subject of what the Book of Mormon simply calls “the plainness of the truth”. (2 Nephi 33:5-6) It’s not enough for something to be plain and simple to the understanding of human beings. We should also, if at all possible, try to be plain and simple without compromising truth. That is, even if we believe that others can’t handle the full truth; we should try to communicate the truth as we understand it. If we don’t harness plainness and simplicity to the truth, we may start to think we can “lie a little” and be justified. (2 Nephi 28:8, Ether 3:12)

As valuable as “peace”, and being “one” are to the Lord, they are not acceptable at the expense of vital truth. (Genesis 11:5-8, Matthew 10:34-37, ST John 14:6) These scriptures, and others, show that there are limits to the virtues of unity and being a peacemaker - even for the Lord. (Exodus 15:3)

What scripture calls “the plainness of the truth” actually suggests that “plainness” alone is not sufficient; that it is possible to be plain and simple in our communications, even to the understanding of all men, and yet not be completely accurate or true. We should be plain while holding to the truth with exactness. This is what “plainness of the truth” means. Otherwise, we might be inclined to propagate emotionally stirring stories that are not really accurate, or shortcut and trim uncomfortable doctrine in order to better engage, as we might suppose, a world wide audience - all with the best intentions.

Here is an example:

It is evident, is it not, that the sun goes around the earth in a perfect circle as a perfect creator intended? That the moon is comparable in size to the sun, and on occasion gets in front of the sun, causing an eclipse. That God commanded the sun to go back in its motion around the earth in the days of King Hezekiah in order to lengthen out the day. (Isaiah 38:8)

Is this not a plain and simple explanation suitable to the understanding of many through the centuries? And yet the Book of Mormon seems to avoid a geocentric model in clarifying that “surely it is the earth that moveth [e.g. accelerateth about a barycenter due to another presence] and not the sun.” See Helaman 12:14-15 in contrast with Job 9:7, and Joshua 10:11-13.

Let's consider another case, a doctrinal one, in which human “plainness” or “simplicity” is perhaps preferred by some over the complete truth? Here is an example of a popular unscriptural teaching that I place in a category called “committee religion”:

It is a plain, simple and fundamental teaching of the Church, is it not, that all human beings are children of God Most High in a full and complete sense?

This is not what LDS scripture teaches (the Standard Works of the Church). LDS scripture teaches that as a consequence of the fall’s spiritual death (Helaman 14:16), sinful human beings (natural men and women) are “no more worthy” to be called the children of GOD. They have become enemies of God. (Mosiah 3:19) Though all human beings are the “offspring of God”, only those who are led by the Spirit of God qualify as the “children of God”. See the section titled “... no more worthy to be called thy son.” (Luke 15:21), in Son of Elohim and Man. Consider also ST John 1:12-13, 3 Nephi 9:17, LDS Doctrine and Covenants 11:30; 34:3; 35:2; 39:4; 42:52, Moses 6:64-68; 7:1.

You see, according to scripture, not all offspring are counted as children. (Romans 9:6-8, ST John 8:32-44) Some offspring have become spiritual “bastards”. (Hebrews 12:8) Some human beings have chosen to become “children of the devil”, “without God in the world”. (Alma 5:39-41; 11:23; 41:11, 1 John 3:10, Ephesians 2:12, Moses 7:32-37; 8:20-21)

It may seem socially easier and sweeter to the point of being saccharine, and we may suppose that it comes across as magnanimous to teach that all human beings are children of the Highest, but it is not scripturally true. (Luke 6:35, Psalm 83:18) It may seem more difficult to teach fallen human beings the correct scriptural principle that they were once spirit children of God (Abraham 3:23, Job 38:4-7), and that they may be reborn to become the children of Gods again. (Mosiah 27:25-26) Until human beings are led by the Spirit of God (suffering them to overcome their imperfections, Romans 8:13-23) they only qualify as “offspring” of God. (Moroni 7:48; see also 1 John 3:1-3, Mosiah 18:21-22)

Elder Neil L. Anderson of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, taught scripturally correct doctrine on this subject in April 2022 General Conference, when he stated, "As we do our part, His promise is that we will be called the “children of God.” Every person on earth is the “offspring” of God, but to be called the “children of God” means much, much more. As we come unto Jesus Christ and make covenants with Him, we become “his seed” and “heirs of the kingdom,” “children of Christ, his sons, and his daughters.”" (“Follow Jesus: Being a Peacemaker”, Saturday Morning Session, April 2022, pg. 18)

This is how we are born again to become children of the “Most High”. (Isaiah 63:16) As children of men repent and continue to be led by the Spirit of God, at some point they will choose to enter into the “new covenant” of the Eternal Messiah (Jeremiah 23:5-6, 6, Psalm 22:8, ST John 5:43, LDS Doctrine and Covenants 109:1-4, 34, 1 Kings 8:23; Yehoshua ha-Mashiah), becoming his children (not just his siblings, Hebrews 2:16-17, Ether 3:14, Isaiah 9:6). His Father then becomes their Father in a full and complete sense. (ST John 20:17)

There were things in Jewish scripture that were “plain and pure, and most precious and easy to the understanding of all men” (1 Nephi 14:23) before they were edited by “that Great and abominable church” among the Gentiles. (1 Nephi 13:25-26) There were also things in Jewish scripture that “were plain unto the understanding of the children of men, according to the plainness which is in the Lamb of God”, that is, when he spake plainly to their understanding. (1 Nephi 13:29, ST John 16:28-29, 29)

There is a “plainness of the truth” and a “plainness of the word of God” which is not always well received, or even comprehended by darkened minds. (1 Nephi 15:3; 19:7) Consider the Savior’s seemingly condescending teachings, and overall “hard” handling of public relations in ST John 6:32-63. Not everything the Savior said was made easy for others to digest. (ST John 10:24-25)

Why did the Savior speak in parables? Was it because the Lord does nothing except it is plain to the understanding of the children of men? (Matthew 13:10-15, Psalm 78:2) Why then did the risen Lord not speak in parables (allegorical stories) to the Nephites? (Mark 4:9-12, 33-34, 3 Nephi 17:2-3, Isaiah 6:9-12, 2 Nephi 25:6-8)

Natural human perceptions of plainness and simplicity may be neither informed, nor precise nor accurate. Nevertheless, GOD risks compromising the truth in efforts to communicate with us. (LDS Doctrine and Covenants 1:24; 29:32-34) In this, we should not supposed that the Gods are in everyway pleased with our weakness in thought and expression, our plainness and simplicity:

For “Wisdom crieth without; she uttereth her voice in the streets: She crieth in the chief place of concourse, in the openings of the gates: in the city she uttereth her words, saying, How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity? and the scorners delight in their scorning, and fools hate knowledge?” (Proverbs 1:20-22)


Letter of Gratitude for Ed Goble

Esoteric Egyptian in the Margins of the Book of Abraham

Joseph Smith’s Book of the Dead Hypocephalus

Esoteric Egyptian in Facsimile No. 2

Princess of On


Ahmehstrahan Counting and Gematria

Ahmehstrahan 1000


Vincent Coon  כּוּן וִינְסֶנט © Copyright 2023


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